Kamis, 28 Februari 2013

A-50 Mainstay Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft (AEW&C)

The A-50 airborne early warning and control aircraft (AEW&C) was developed and manufactured by the Beriev Aircraft Research and Engineering Complex Joint Stock Company based at Taganrog in the Rostov Region of Russia. The A-50 aircraft was developed from the llyushin IL-76MD military transport aircraft manufactured by the Ilyushin Aviation Complex Joint Stock Company based in Moscow.
The aircraft is known in the West by the Nato codename Mainstay. Beriev aircraft normally carry the Russian designation Be- followed by the number, however, the A-50 aircraft retained the well-known A-designation which Beriev allocated to the original prototype.
The A-50 aircraft detects and identifies airborne objects, determines their coordinates and flight path data and transfers the information to command posts. The A-50 also acts as a control centre, guiding fighter-interceptors and tactical air force aircraft to combat areas in order to attack ground targets at low altitudes. The role of the A-50 is comparable to that of the US's E-3 AEW system developed by Boeing.
A-50 Mainstay programme and development
The A-50 entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1984. Currently, 16 aircraft are operational in the Russian Air Force. The upgraded version, the A-50U was first announced in 1995 but did not enter testing until 2008. It then entered service in 2011. The upgraded A-50Us have extended the aircraft's the service life to 2020.
The modernised A-50 aircraft can now take more fuel on board with the same take-off weight, while increasing the range and mission time performance. A satellite navigation system integrated into flight and navigation complex offers a dramatic increase in the navigational accuracy.
A-50 variants
The A-50 aircraft was followed by four variants: A-50M, A-50U, A-50I and A-50E/I. The A-50M variant is an advanced version of the A-50 aircraft. The outdated analogue equipment of the A-50 have been replaced with digital electronics system to create the A-50M aircraft.
The A-50U is an updated Russian variant, first shown in 1995. It was created by modernising the element base of airborne radiotechnical complex, thereby reducing the total weight.
The A-50I is a variant specifically developed to meet the requirements of the Indian Air Force. It is additionally equipped with Israeli-made Phalcon radar. The variant, A-50E/I is an Israeli Phalcon radar export version.
Orders and deliveries
India selected three A-50EI / IL-76 variants equipped with Phalcon AEW radar systems in 2001. Elta of Israel provided the AEW radar systems. A contract for the sale was signed in March 2004. The AEW aircraft, which was expected to be delivered to the Indian Air Force in 2007-2008, was delayed and the first AEW aircraft was finally delivered on 28 May 2009. The second and third AEW aircraft were delivered in March 2010 and December 2010 respectively.
Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) purchases the aircraft from Ilyushin and TAPC. In September 2010, India unveiled a decision to buy two additional aircraft from IAI . Apart from India and Israel, the AEW&C radar system developed by IAI and Elta Electronics Industries are in service with Chile and Singapore.
China also ordered four A-50/A-50M/U aircraft from Russia.
Mainstay AEW&C radar system
The A-50U airborne radar warning and guidance system is the Schnel-M produced by Vega. It comprises:

  • radar station
  • data reduction system
  • interrogator-responder and signal transmission system
  • digital computer complex
  • identification friend or foe (IFF) equipment
  • command radio link to guide fighters
  • encoding communication system
  • radio communication equipment
  • telemetry / code equipment
  • registering equipment.

The radar and guidance systems have the capacity to track 50 to 60 targets simultaneously and to guide ten to 12 fighter aircraft simultaneously
The A-50 is fitted with a self-defence system when flying en-route and over patrol zones. The self-defence system ensures protection from guided and unguided weapons of the enemy's fighters attacking the aircraft from its front and rear hemispheres. The self-defence system includes an electronic countermeasures system.
The aircraft can also be protected from the enemy's fighter aircraft via guidance of friendly fighters.
The aircraft radio and electronics systems are robust against hostile jamming and provide good combat performance in dense electronic countermeasures environments.
Flight control and navigation
The aircraft is fitted with the NPK-T flight control and navigation system used to ensure air navigation during all flight stages in all-weather day and night and all-year operations performed at all geographical latitudes. The system also provides flight control and navigation data intended for mission specific systems and equipment.
The A-50 carries out patrol missions at an altitude of 5,000m to 10,000m. The patrol service ceiling is 10km. The maximum flight range of the aircraft is 5,000km and the flight endurance is seven hours 40 minutes. At a range of 2,000km, the A-50 can remain on patrol for up to one hour 25 minutes.
The aircraft is manned by five flight crew and ten mission crew. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 170,000kg. It can travel at a maximum speed of 800km/h.

Spike Anti-Tank Missile

Rafael, based in Haifa, Israel, manufactures the Spike family of anti-armour weapons. The weapons are lightweight fire-and-forget anti-tank missiles and use electro-optical and fibre-optic technologies. The systems are used by infantry soldiers, special rapid reaction forces, ground forces and helicopter aircrew.
Spike anti-tank missile family
The Spike family includes: Spike-SR with a range of 800m, Spike-MR (Gill) with range of 2,500m, Spike-LR with 4,000m range and Spike-ER (formerly known as NTD Dandy) with a range of 8,000m. Spike-LR and Spike-ER can also be fitted on light combat vehicles and a package for mounting Spike-ER on helicopters is also available. The Spike missile system is currently in production and in service with the Israeli, Dutch, Chilean, Colombian, Finnish, German, Polish, Italian, Peruvian, Spanish and Singaporean armed forces.
Spike anti-tank missile orders and deliveries
In October 2003, the IDF awarded a production contract for Spike C4I, the Spike-ER system fitted with networking capability. The Spike launcher will be fitted with a variant of the Azimuth Comet global positioning system (GPS), laptop computer and VHF datalink.
In June 2004, a joint venture company, Eurospike, was formed by Rafael with Rheinmetall Defence Electronics (formerly STN Atlas Elektronik) and Diehl Munitionssysteme (DMS). This followed a cooperation agreement signed by the three companies in November 1998. Eurospike GmbH is the prime contractor for the Spike family of missiles in Europe.
In May 2000, the Finnish Army selected the Spike-MR system to meet its requirement for a medium-range anti-tank missile system. Rheinmetall DeTec will produce the launchers, Diehl the munition and Rheinmetall the warhead.
In August 2001, the Dutch Ministry of Defence ordered the Spike-MR (Gill) missile system to replace the Dragon missile of the Royal Netherlands Army and Marine Corps. Rafael is the prime contractor, with Rheinmetall, Diehl and Thales Nederland (formerly Signaal) the major subcontractors.
In January 2004, Poland signed a contract with ZM Mesko for the purchase of the Spike-LR missile system. ZM Mesko manufactured elements of the missiles and began final assembly in 2006. The requirement is for 264 tripod launchers and 2,675 missiles. Deliveries began in November 2004 and conclude in 2013. Poland also requires 160 systems to be integrated on the Oto Melara HITFIST 30 turret mounted on Patria armoured modular vehicles. The system is also being trialled by the Romanian Army.
In December 2006, the government of Spain placed an order for 260 launchers and 2,600 Spike-LR missiles, to replace Milan and Dragon missiles. General Dynamics Santa Barbara has signed a contract with Rafael for local production of the missiles. Deliveries began in 2009 and scheduled to conclude in 2014.
In January 2008, Spain placed an order for Spike-ER missiles to equip the 24 Tiger HAD attack helicopters on order from Eurocopter.
In December 2008, PSM and the German Ministry of Defence signed a contract to integrate the Spike missile system on the Puma armoured infantry fighting vehicle being developed for the German Army.
Spike anti-tank missile system
The Spike-MR and Spike-LR have the same firing post. The firing post consists of the command launch Unit (CLU), the thermal imaging sight and a tripod.
The system is made ready to fire in less than 30 seconds. The soldier acquires the target and lays the crosshairs of the sight on the aim point on the target using either the day sight with a 10× magnification and 5° field of view or the clip-on thermal imaging night sight with wide and narrow fields of view.
In fire-and-forget mode, the soldier activates the missile, locking the tracker on the target and pushes the fire button to launch. The missile automatically propels itself towards the target without any additional interaction and this fire-and-forget capability allows the soldier the option of relocating to a new firing position or to reload immediately for the next engagement. Reloading takes less than 15 seconds.
After launch the missile follows a lofted trajectory and as it approaches the target it dives down to impact the target. The lofted trajectory and the tandem high explosive warhead enables the missile to penetrate tanks equipped with explosive reactive armour (ERA).
Anti-armour missile
The missile has four rectangular fins for aerodynamic control at the rear, and four wings at just over halfway from nose to tail on the length of the body. They unfold as the missile leaves the launch canister.
The guidance system in the nose of the Spike missile comprises a charge-coupled device (CCD) and imaging infrared (IIR) seeker. The imaging infrared provides higher sensitivity and improved thermal background rejection characteristics for all weather day and night operation.
Spike-SR short-range anti armour missle
The Spike-SR is a low cost, man portable, short range, fire and forget missile designed to counter armored vehicles as well as bunkers and fortifications. This missile system can be fired from confined spaces and features a tandem warhead to defeat Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) and Active Protection System (APS) equipped targets. In addition, the missile features ease of operation with maintenace free and an uncooled Infrared (IR) sensor.
Spike-SR has been designed for dismounted/light infantry and urban warfare scenarios. It is currently in service in the Israel Armed Forces.
Spike-MR (Gill) medium-range anti-armour missile
The Spike-MR, also known as Gill, is a medium range, man-portable, fire and forget anti-tank missile. The Gill missile can be also fired using an optional fire, observe and update mode. The guidance system consists of a set of Infrared and CCD-TV sensors. The firing post with tripod (command launch unit) weighs about 13 kg and the missile in canister 13 kg. The Gill missile features a tandem warhead with a top-attack profile.
In June 2004, EuroSpike GmbH, a joint venture between Diehl (40%), Rheinmetall (40%), and Rafael (20%), was created to support Spike family of anti-armor missiles sales to European customers.
The Spike-MR anti-tank weapon system can operated by a crew of two man
Spike-LR long-range anti-armour missile
The Spike-LR is a portable anti-armour weapon system with a range of up to 4km, which can be operated in fire-and-forget mode and in fire, observe and update mode using the fibre-optic data link.
The Spike-LR is equipped with a fibre-optic data link guidance system, which sends commands to the missile from the launch system and receives, into the gunner's field of view, images from the seeker. The gunner can update his aim point while the missile is in flight using the fibre-optic link. As well as update target information, the datalink allows the gunner to switch targets and also receive real-time intelligence and perform battle damage assessment. The Spike system can work in non line-of-sight (NLOS) mode allowing the gunner to operate from a covered position.
Spike-LR, which can also be installed on light combat vehicles, can be used to engage tanks, armoured vehicles, hardened shelters and low flying slow targets such as helicopters.
Spike-ER extended-range anti-armour missile
The Spike-ER, formerly known as the NTD, is a multi-platform anti-tank missile with an extended range over previous Spike missiles. It has been designed to be mounted on ground vehicles, helicopters, and naval vessels. It seeker combines electro-optical sensors (IR/CCD-TV) and a fiber optic data link to achieve fire and forget and directed launch modes. Using the fiber optic data link the Spike-ER missile is able to perform battle damage assessment, in-flight retargeting, identification friend or foe, attacks without collateral damage and pinpoint accuracy strikes.
In June 2004, EuroSpike GmbH, a joint venture between Diehl (40%), Rheinmetall (40%), and Rafael (20%), was created to support Spike family of anti-armor missiles sales to European customers.

The Spike-ER missile operates day/night, in all weather conditions. Its tandem warhead ensures neutralization of ERA (Explosive Reactive Armor) protected targets. A single missile launcher weighs about 58 kg, and the 4-missile launcher for helicopters weighs 187 kg. A wooden round Spike-ER missile weighs 33 kg.
The Spike-ER long range anti-tank missile is currently deployed in Israel Armed Forces. The Spike-ER is the Israeli counterpart to proven Hellfire long range anti-tank missile.
Rafael has developed a version of Spike-ER with a penetration, blast and fragmentation (PBF) warhead which only explodes after penetration of the target (e.g. a wall), minimising collateral damage.
A Spike-ER launcher has been developed for helicopters. The four-round launcher requires no modifications to the helicopter, other than software integration. It can be fitted to a variety of helicopters, including AH-64 Apache (which can carry 16 missiles), AH-1S Cobra, A-129, MD-500, Mi-24 and others.
Spike NLOS non-line of sight missile
The Spike NLOS is an electro-optically guided non-line of sight (NLOS) missile designed to destroy targets at ranges of up to 25 kilometers with pinpoint accuracy and midcourse navigation. The new weapon system can be integrated on land, airborne and sea-based platforms. The Spike NLOS is equipped with a variety of warheads, radio-frequency communication and two-way data link which allows flex targeting in offensive and defensive scenarios. The new member of the Spike missile family is optimized for network centric warfare (NCW) receiving target location from external sensors such as those installed on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Rafael unveiled the Spike  NLOS weapon system in late 2009.
Equipped with a range of warheads and RF communication, Spike NLOS can be deployed in offensive and defensive scenarios.
Mini Spike Anti-Personnel Guided Weapon
On 2 September 2009, at an IDF exhibition held at the 3rd Latrun annual land warfare conference, the Israeli Defense Force unveiled a new member of the Spike family of missiles – the Mini Spike Anti-personnel guided weapon (APGW). Rafael claims that this latest member of the Spike family of missile costs and weighs only a third of the Spike-LR, while offering a longer engagement range of 1.3 km (0.81 mi) when compared to the Spike-SR.
Mantis fast attack vehicle mounted Spike-LR
A prototype of the Spike-LR missile mounted on a Marvin ITV-1 4×4 all-terrain vehicle has been built by Rafael. The system is called Mantis and consists of six Spike-LR missiles with the Rafael Spike C3I system and reconnaissance sensors, including CCD day camera, thermal imager, laser rangefinder and GPS.


The mission of the VC-25 aircraft -- Air Force One -- is to provide air transport for the president of the United States. 

The presidential air transport fleet consists of two specially configured Boeing 747-200B's -- tail numbers 28000 and 29000 -- with the Air Force designation VC-25. When the president is aboard either aircraft, or any Air Force aircraft, the radio call sign is "Air Force One." 

Principal differences between the VC-25 and the standard Boeing 747, other than the number of passengers carried, are the state of the art navigation, electronic and communications equipment, its interior configuration and furnishings, self-contained baggage loader, front and aft air-stairs, and the capability for in-flight refueling. 

Accommodations for the president include an executive suite consisting of a stateroom (with dressing room, lavatory and shower) and the president's office. A conference/dining room is also available for the president, his family and staff. Other separate accommodations are provided for guests, senior staff, Secret Service and security personnel, and the news media. 

Two galleys provide up to 100 meals at one sitting. Six passenger lavatories, including disabled access facilities, are provided as well as a rest area and mini-galley for the aircrew. The VC-25 also has a compartment outfitted with medical equipment and supplies for minor medical emergencies. The aircraft is one of a kind. 

These aircraft are flown by the Presidential Airlift Group, and are assigned to Air Mobility Command's 89th Airlift Wing, Andrews Air Force Base, Md. 

Presidential air transport began in 1944 when a C-54 -- the "Sacred Cow" -- was put into service for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Then came the "Independence," a DC-6 (Liftmaster), which transported President Harry S. Truman during the period 1947 to 1953. President Dwight D. Eisenhower traveled aboard the "Columbine II" and "Columbine III" from 1953 to 1961. While the call sign "Air Force One" was first used in the 50s, President Kennedy's VC-137 (Boeing 707) was the first aircraft to be popularly known as "Air Force One." 

In 1962, a C-137C specifically purchased for use as Air Force One, entered into service with the tail number 26000. It is perhaps the most widely known and most historically significant presidential aircraft. Tail number 26000 is the aircraft that carried President Kennedy to Dallas, Nov. 22, 1963, and returned the body to Washington, D.C., following his assassination. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office as the 36th president on board the aircraft at Love Field in Dallas. This fateful aircraft also was used to return President Johnson's body to Texas following his state funeral Jan. 24, 1973. In 1972 President Richard M. Nixon made historic visits aboard 26000 to the People's Republic of China and to the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tail number 26000 was retired May 1998, and is on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. 

Tail number 27000 replaced 26000 and carved its own history when it was used to fly Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter to Cairo, Egypt, Oct. 19, 1981, to represent the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. 

The first VC-25A -- tail number 28000 -- flew as "Air Force One" on Sept. 6, 1990, when it transported President George Bush to Kansas, Florida and back to Washington, D.C. A second VC-25A, tail number 29000 transported Presidents Clinton, Carter and Bush to Israel for the funeral of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The VC-25A will usher presidential travel into the 21st century, upholding the proud tradition and distinction of being known as "Air Force One." 

General Characteristics 
Primary Function: Presidential air transport 
Contractor: Boeing Airplane Co. 
Power Plant: Four General Electric CF6-80C2B1 jet engines 
Thrust: 56,700 pounds, each engine 
Length: 231 feet, 10 inches (70.7 meters) 
Height: 63 feet, 5 inches (19.3 meters) 
Wingspan: 195 feet, 8 inches (59.6 meters) 
Speed: 630 miles per hour (Mach 0.92) 
Ceiling: 45,100 feet (13,746 meters) 
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 833,000 pounds (374,850 kilograms) 
Range: 7,800 statute miles (6,800 nautical miles) (12,550 kilometers) 
Crew: 26 (passenger/crew capacity: 102) 
Introduction Date: Dec. 8, 1990 (No. 28000); Dec. 23, 1990 (No. 29000) 
Date Deployed: Sept. 6, 1990 (No. 28000); Mar. 26, 1991 (No. 29000) 
Inventory: Active force, 2; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0


The MQ-1 Predator is an armed, multi-mission, medium-altitude, long endurance remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) that is employed primarily in a killer/scout role as an intelligence collection asset and secondarily against dynamic execution targets. Given its significant loiter time, wide-range sensors, multi-mode communications suite, and precision weapons -- it provides a unique capability to autonomously execute the kill chain (find, fix, track, target, engage, and assess) against high value, fleeting, and time sensitive targets (TSTs). Predators can also perform the following missions and tasks: intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR), close air support (CAS), combat search and rescue (CSAR), precision strike, buddy-lase, convoy/raid overwatch, route clearance, target development, and terminal air guidance. The MQ-1's capabilities make it uniquely qualified to conduct irregular warfare operations in support of Combatant Commander objectives.

The Predator is part of an Unmanned Aircraft System, or UAS, not just an aircraft. A fully operational UAS consists of four sensor/weapon equipped aircraft, a ground control station (GCS), a Predator Primary Satellite Link (PPSL), and spare equipment along with operations and maintenance crews for deployed 24-hour operations. 

The basic crew for the Predator is a rated pilot to control the aircraft and command the mission and an enlisted aircrew member to operate sensors and weapons plus a mission coordinator, when required. The crew employs the aircraft from inside the GCS via a line-of-sight data link or a satellite data link for beyond line-of-sight operations. 

The MQ-1B Predator carries the Multi-spectral Targeting System, or MTS-A,  which integrates an infrared sensor, a color/monochrome daylight TV camera, an image-intensified TV camera, a laser designator and a laser illuminator into a single package. The full motion video from each of the imaging sensors can be viewed as separate video streams or fused together. The aircraft can employ two laser-guided AGM-114 Hellfire missiles which possess a highly accurate, low collateral damage, and anti-armor and anti-personnel engagement capability. 

The system can be deployed for worldwide operations. The Predator aircraft can be disassembled and loaded into a container for travel. The ground control system and PPSL are transportable in a C-130 Hercules (or larger) transport aircraft. The Predator can operate on a 5,000 by 75 foot (1,524 meters by 23 meters) hard surface runway with clear line-of-sight to the ground data terminal antenna. The antenna provides line-of-sight communications for takeoff and landing. The PPSL provides over-the-horizon communications for the aircraft and sensors. 

The primary concept of operations, Remote Split Operations (RSO), employs a launch and recovery GCS for takeoff and landing operations at the forward operating location while the Continental U.S.-based crew executes command and control of the remainder of the mission via beyond-line-of-sight links. RSO results in a smaller number of personnel deployed to a forward location, consolidates control of the different flights in one location, and as such, simplifies command & control functions as well as the logistical supply challenges for the weapons system.

The aircraft has an ARC-210 radio, an APX-100 IFF/SIF with Mode 4, and an upgraded turbocharged engine. The latest upgrades, which enhance maintenance and performance, include notched tails, split engine cowlings, braided steel hoses and improved engine blocks. 

The Predator system was designed in response to a Department of Defense requirement to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information combined with a kill capability to the warfighter. 

In April 1996, the secretary of defense selected the U.S. Air Force as the operating service for the RQ-1 Predator system.  The "R" is the Department of Defense designation for reconnaissance aircraft. The "M" is the DOD designation for multi-role, and "Q" means unmanned aircraft system. The "1" refers to the aircraft being the first of the series of remotely piloted aircraft systems.

A change in designation from "RQ-1" to "MQ-1" occurred in 2002 with the addition of the AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, enabling reaction against ISR, CAS and interdiction targets.

The Predator UAS continues to provide required armed ISR capabilities to overseas contingency operations warfighters. During August 2011, Predator passed its one millionth total development, test, training and combat hours mark - a significant accomplishment for the U.S. Air Force. 

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Armed reconnaissance, airborne surveillance and target acquisition 
Contractor: General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. 
Power Plant: Rotax 914F four cylinder engine 
Thrust: 115 horsepower
Wingspan: 55 feet (16.8 meters) 
Length: 27 feet (8.22 meters) 
Height: 6.9 feet (2.1 meters) 
Weight: 1,130 pounds ( 512 kilograms) empty 
Maximum takeoff weight:  2,250 pounds (1,020 kilograms) 
Fuel Capacity: 665 pounds (100 gallons) 
Payload: 450 pounds (204 kilograms) 
Speed: Cruise speed around 84 mph (70 knots), up to 135 mph 
Range: Up to 770 miles (675 nautical miles) 
Ceiling: Up to 25,000 feet (7,620 meters) 
Armament: Two laser-guided AGM-114 Hellfire missiles 
Crew (remote):
  Two (pilot and sensor operator)
Initial operational capability: March 2005 
Unit Cost: $20 million (fiscal 2009 dollars) (includes four aircraft, a ground control station and a Predator Primary Satellite Link)

Selasa, 26 Februari 2013


The K-37M, RVV-BD or AA-13 Arrow western designation, is a long-range air-to-air missile being developed for the Mig-31BM interceptor. It has also had the names K-37, Izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Raketa-Vysokaya Dalnost, "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codename 'Andi'.
It was designed to shoot down AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft whilst keeping the launch platform out of range of any fighters that might be protecting the target.

The K-37M seems to be a successor or leverage some technology from the R-37 air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for the Mig-31M in the 1980s as a replacement for the R-33 missile. As of summer 2010 the missile system program was still in the development phase as the primary weapon for the Mig-31BM aircraft. The Russian reported that the K-37M underwent first firing testings in early 2012. The R-37M designation will apply when the new long-range air-to-air missile enters operational service with the Russian Air Force.

According to Defence Today the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile. According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160–220 nm).

The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989. Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s; in 1994 a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km). However, the programme appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.
Work on the missile appears to have restarted in late 2006, as part of the MiG-31BM programme to update the Foxhound with a new radar and ground attack capability.

The Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS)

The Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) is a tri-national missile defense project of the United States, Germany, and Italy. MEADS is currently in the design and development phase, but once operational, it will use the new Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Enhancement missiles to protect ground forces and fixed military positions against attack from tactical ballistic missiles, low and high altitude cruise missiles, aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles. 
As a mobile land-based surface-to-air missile system, MEADS will bridge the gap between
smaller portable surface-to-air systems like the Stinger missile and the higher levels of the
Missile Defense Agency’s Ballistic Missile Defense System, such as the Terminal High Altitude Defense System (THAAD). Unlike the old Patriot system, MEADS will provide 360-degree coverage and will roll directly off transport vehicles into combat situations.
The project began in the late 1980s and early 1990s when the U.S. Army and Marine Corps created the Corps SAM program to replace the Hawk Air Defense System that had been in service since the 1960s. In 1995, Corps SAM was renamed MEADS and became a multinational partnership. Participating companies are Lockheed Martin (U.S) and MBDA (Italy and Germany). Funding is also collaborative: the U.S. pays 58 percent, Germany pays 25 percent, and Italy pays 17 percent.
In September 2004, MEADS International (MI) received a 9-year $3.4 billion Design and Development letter contract to  design and develop MEADS. The contract award followed a series of successful system demonstrations and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy. Germany signed the agreement following parliamentary action in April 2005.
The system’s six major equipment items are: Multifunction Fire Control Radar; Surveillance Radar; Battle Management, Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (BMC4I) Tactical Operations Center; Certified Missile Round (PAC-3 Missile and canister); Launcher; and Reloader.
Once an incoming missile has been detected, the radar will produce detailed tracking reports, and the BMC4I will send its launch commands to the multi-canister mobile launchers. Each launcher will be capable of holding multiple PAC-3 MSE interceptors, and will be mounted on a wheeled vehicle. The Army will be able to roll the system elements on and off C-130 and A400M transport aircraft for rapid deployment. In the combat zone, the mobile radars and launchers will keep pace with fast moving ground forces. To reduce the risk of detection, the Army will be able to place the launchers far away from radar and BMC4I units.
The MFCR is an X-band, solid-state, phased array radar using element-level transmit/
receive modules. It provides precision tracking and wideband discrimination and classification capabilities. For extremely rapid deployments, the MEADS MFCR can provide both surveillance and fire control capabilities until a surveillance radar joins the network. The MFCR uses its main beam for uplink and downlink missile communications. An advanced Mode 5 identify friend-or- foe subsystem supports improved threat identification and typing. Through its plug-and-fight capability, the sensors and launchers simply acts as nodes on the MEADS network. The MEADS Tactical Operations Center lets a commander dynamically add or subtract sensors and shooters as the situation dictates without shutting the system down.
Once launched, the PAC-3 MSE will streak toward its target, receiving initial guidance from the X-band multi-function fire control radar. As the interceptor closes in on the target, the missile’s active seeker recalculates the trajectory and makes adjustments to the its speed and direction. The missile will collide with the incoming missile (like a bullet hitting a bullet), causing complete destruction of the warhead, including any nuclear, chemical, or biological agents.
In late 2003, MEADS successfully demonstrated its ability to detect, track, and destroy simulated aircraft and missile targets in a test at Lockheed Martin’s facilities in Syracuse, New York. In March 2004, two PAC-3 missiles destroyed a large target missile at the U.S. Army’s White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The target missile had been modified to represent a short-range tactical ballistic missile and programmed to simulate the flight patterns of a Scud missile. 
In September 2004, MEADS International (MI) received a 9-year $3.4 billion Design and Development letter contract to design and develop MEADS. The contract award followed a series of successful system demonstrations and signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and Italy. Germany signed the agreement following parliamentary action in April 2005. Germany and Italy have expressed concern about proposed cuts to their work share, limitations to their role in testing, and restrictions on technology sharing. 
The U.S., however, maintains that MEADS is an essential part of its missile defense architecture. In a March 2004 letter, the Pentagon stressed the importance of a “fair and balanced” missile defense program between the three allies. MEADS remains on schedule for initial deployment in 2014. 
In November 2012, the MEADS system detected, tracked, intercepted and destroyed an air- breathing target in an intercept flight test at White Sands Missile Range, N.M. The test achieved all criteria for success. The MEADS test configuration included a networked MEADS battle manager, lightweight launcher firing a PAC-3 MSE Certified Missile Round, and a 360-degree MEADS Multifunction Fire Control Radar (MFCR), which tracked the MQM-107 target and guided the missile to a successful intercept.
The test exploited the MEADS capability for full-perimeter, 360-degree defense with the PAC- 3 MSE Missile performing a unique over-the-shoulder maneuver to defeat the target attacking from behind the MEADS emplacement. Using its 360-degree defensive capability, MEADS can defend up to eight times the coverage area with far fewer system assets. Its significantly reduced demand for deployed personnel and equipment reduces demand for airlift.
The program is continuing to work toward a fourth quarter 2013 flight test to prove its MEADS missile defense system can intercept a ballistic missile, although some U.S. lawmakers have sought to cut off funding for the three-nation program.

Minggu, 24 Februari 2013

Advanced Hypersonic Weapon (AHW), United States of America

The Advanced Hypersonic Weapon (AHW) is a demonstrative long-range glide vehicle capable of flying within the planet's atmosphere at hypersonic speed. The AHW technology demonstration programme is managed by the US Army Space and Missile Defence Command (USASMDC) / Army Forces Strategic Command (ARSTRAT).
The technology was developed through the cooperative effort of the US Department of Defence to evaluate a conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) capability for striking time-sensitive high-value targets.
In November 2011, AHW was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii, to the Reagan Test Site on the Marshall Islands. The glide vehicle successfully hit the target, which is located about 3,700km away from the launch site. The vehicle's flight characteristics were gathered from space, air / sea and ground-based platforms.
The test was conducted to demonstrate hypersonic boost-glide technologies and trial the capability for atmospheric flight at long-ranges. The flight test was carried out in accordance with the regulations of Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I, as well as the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.

AHW and its role in the US's CPGS programme
AHW was developed as a part of the conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) programme. The CPGS programme will allow the US defence forces to strike targets anywhere on the Earth with conventional weapons within an hour. This capability will ensure the US can attack high-value targets or transient targets at the beginning of or during a conflict.
The FY2010 budget for the AHW programme was $46.9m. The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed boost-glide flight tests in April 2010 and August 2011. Results from the tests were used in the AHW flight test.
The SMDC's programme office in Huntsville executes the AHW programme. Sandia National Laboratories supplied the booster system and the glide vehicle. The thermal protection system was developed by the US Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Centre (AMRDEC).

Design and capabilities of the Advanced Hypersonic Weapon
The AHW hypersonic glide body (HGB) vehicle has a conical design with winglets. It was designed to fit within the payload assembly. The structure is made of aluminium, titanium, steel, tantalum, tungsten, carbon fabric, silica and other alloys, including chromium and nickel.
HGB is powered by one lithium-ion actuator battery, two lithium-ion and five nickel manganese hydride batteries. Pressurised nitrogen gas is used as a propellant for the vehicle. Other equipment includes radio frequency transmitters and small electro-explosive devices.
The AHW is designed to provide a 6,000km range with 35 minute time-of-flight and achieve less than ten metre accuracy. It delivers a conventional payload at medium and global ranges, using a hypersonic glider.
The weapon's high manoeuvrability allows it to avoid flight over third party nations when approaching the target. It employs a precision guidance system to home in on the target.

Launch vehicle of the US's demonstrative long-range glide vehicle
The Strategic Target System (STARS) was used for the flight test of the AHW from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF).
The launch was propelled by Polaris A3 first and second stage motors, plus an Orbus 1a third stage motor.
The main elements of the STARS include three boosters, payload (HGB) and control electronics. The three boosters were loaded with 30,541lb of propellant to generate about 75,000lb of thrust. Safe separation of the HGB was enabled by the third stage cold gas attitude control system.
The flight termination system (FTS) is activated if the launch vehicle deviates from its path during flight. The destruction package used in the system can identify a premature separation of the booster stages and induct a thrust termination activity.

Once the booster's forward thrust is terminated, the launch vehicle descends along the trajectory to fall into the ocean. The explosive charges near the payload assembly will disable the flying ability of HGB in case of premature detachment from the booster.


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FN MRP (Medium Ramp Pintle), including a .50 cal FN M3M (GAU-21) and a medium pintle head. Shown here on CH-53 (Sikorsky). © FN Herstal.
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FN RMP (Heavy Machine Gun Pod), including a .50cal FN M3P and a 400-round ammunition box. © FN Herstal.
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